Cervical Cancer: The Preventable Gynecologic
by Centers for
Disease Control, Jan. 19, 2012
Most cases of cervical cancer are easily preventable with regular
screening tests and follow-up. It also is highly curable when found and
treated early. Now vaccines are available to protect against the most
common cause of cervical cancer.
The main cause of cervical cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV), a common
virus that can be passed from one person to another during sex. HPV also
causes other cancers, including vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and a few
head and neck (oropharyngeal) cancers. At least half of sexually active
people will have HPV at some point in their lives.
All women are at risk for cervical cancer. It occurs most often in women
over age 30. Cervical cancer is highly preventable because screening tests
(such as the Pap test) to find precancers early, and vaccines to prevent
HPV infections are available. When cervical cancer is found early, it is
highly treatable and associated with long survival and good quality of
Most of the time, HPV goes away by itself within two years and does not
cause health problems. The immune system can fight off HPV naturally. If
the body does not clear the virus, it stays in the body for many years
before it causes these cancers. It is not known why HPV goes away in most,
but not all, cases.
Two tests can help prevent cervical cancer or find it early—
The Pap test (or Pap smear) looks for precancers, cell changes on the
cervix that might become cervical cancer if they are not treated
The HPV test looks for the virus that can cause these cell changes.
The Pap test is recommended for all women, and can be done in a doctor's
office or clinic. Women should start getting regular Pap tests at age 21.
In addition to the Pap test, the HPV test may be used to screen for
cervical cancer, along with the Pap test, in women aged 30 years and
older. For more information about screening, including when to start, when
to stop, and how often to be screened, visit Cervical
Cancer Screening Guidelines.
If you have a low income or do not have health insurance, you may be able
to get a free or low-cost Pap test through the National Breast and
Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. Find out if you qualify.
HPV vaccines protect against the types of HPV that most commonly cause
cervical cancer. Two HPV vaccines are licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration and recommended by CDC. These vaccines are Gardasil® (made
by Merck) and Cervarix® (made by GlaxoSmithKline). Both
vaccines are very effective against HPV types 16 and 18, which cause most
cervical cancers. So both vaccines prevent cervical cancer and precancer
CDC recommends that all girls who are 11 or 12 years old get three doses
(shots) of either brand of HPV vaccine to protect against cervical cancer
and precancer. Gardasil® also protects against most genital
warts. Girls and young women ages 13 through 26 who were not vaccinated
earlier should get all three doses of an HPV vaccine.
Most health insurance plans cover the cost of vaccines, but you may want
to check with your insurance provider before going to the doctor. If you
don't have insurance, or if it does not cover vaccines, the Vaccines
for Children (VFC) program may be able to help. Through this
program, children younger than 19 years of age who are Medicaid-eligible,
American Indian or Alaska Native, or have no health insurance can receive
vaccines at reduced cost.
More Steps to Help Prevent Cervical Cancer
These things may also help lower your risk for cervical cancer—
Use condoms during sex.*
Limit your number of sexual partners.
*HPV infection can occur in both male and female genital areas that are
covered or protected by a latex condom, as well as in areas that are not
Listen to or download a podcast
Women: Be Aware [PODCAST - 3:37 minutes]
Take Time to Save Your Life [PODCAST - 3:27
Cáncer de cuello uterino
Cervical Cancer Fact
- 1.4 MB]
Cervical Cancer Screening
HPV Vaccine - Questions & Answers
Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons
Aged 0 Through 18 Years
National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program